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  Cotton is fibre from the seeds of the cotton plant. In its raw state it is used to make cotton wool. Its quality depends on its fineness, purity, shine, colour and especially the length of the fibre (thread). The longer the fibre (it usually ranges from 10 to 50 mm), the finer, more resistant and consistent is the thread obtained. Short fibre cotton is used for sheets, work clothing, underwear, sport shirts and suit fabric. The longer fibre is used for batistes, poplins and damasks. The long fibre cotton is more expensive than mid and short-fibre cotton.

Properties

  It is resistant to tearing and rubbing. It has high absorbent qualities, heat resistance, and is washable (it can be boiled). It does not become matted or attract moths. It is cool and flexible. It does not accumulate static electricity. Its tendency to wrinkle and its low resistance to dimensional stability can be significantly improved through an appropriate finishing treatment. Its inflammable tendency can also be corrected this way.

- The cotton process

SPINNING

TRANSFORMATION OF TEXTILE FIBRES INTO YARNS

OPENING

OPENING OF FIBRE FLOCKS, ELIMINATING DUST

CARDING/
COMBING

DISPERSING OF FIBRES, ELIMINATING IMPURITIES AND OBTAINING A PLEATED WEB THAT IS CARD SLIVER-SHAPED

PREPARATION

PARALLELING OF FIBRES AND REGULATION OF CARD SLIVERS TO OBTAIN A ROVING

SPINNING

STRETCHING AND TWISTING OF THE ROVING TO BRING YARN ONTO SPINDLE

WINDING

TRANSFER OF THE YARN IN SPINDLE TO BOBBIN, ALLOWING GREATER CAPACITY


WEAVING

PRODUCES FABRICS THROUGH THE INSERTION OF YARNS

WARPING

PLACES THE YARNS IN A BEAMING MACHINE, WHICH WILL FEED THE LOOM

WARP SIZING

IMPREGNATION OF THE WARP WITH SUBSTANCES DESTINED TO INCREASE YARN STRENGTH

KNOTTING

KNOTTING EACH YARN OF THE NEW WARP WITH THE YARNS OF THE PREVIOUS WARP

DRAWING-IN OF WARP ENDS

DRAWING-IN OF WARP ENDS IN an ORDERLY FASHION THROUGH THE HEDDLES AND COMB OF THE LOOM

WEAVING

ATTAINMENT OF THE FABRIC THROUGH THE INTERCROSSING OF LONGITUDINAL YARNS (WARP) WITH THE TRANSVERSALLY-INSERTED YARNS (WEFT)


FINISHING

HESE ARE A SERIES OF PROCEDURES DESIGNED TO IMPROVE THE PHYSICAL AND PRESENTATIONAL CONDITIONS OF THE FABRIC. THE MOST IMPORTANT ARE: DYEING, SIZING, RINSING AND PRINTING.

DYEING IS DONE TO GIVE COLOUR TO ANY TEXTILE ITEM.

FINISHING IS DONE TO IMPROVE THE TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FABRIC (DIMENSIONAL STABILITY AND CONSISTENCY), ITS PRESENCE (CLEANNESS, FEEL, ETC.) AND APPEARANCE.

SIZING IS A FINISHING PROCESS DONE WITH CHEMICAL PRODUCTS TO IMPROVE THE QUALITIES OF THE FABRIC.

A DESIGN (PATTERN) IS APPLIED TO GREIGE GOODS THROUGH PRINTING.

- The product

 The cotton sector manufactures a wide range of products, mainly yarns, fabrics and linens.

Yarns are used to produce fabrics or knitwear. One variety are the sewing and embroidery threads.

Fabrics are made with yarns and are used to make up garments (shirts, trousers, jackets, etc.), linens (sheets, bedspreads, net curtains, etc.) and for industrial uses (canvases, construction fabrics, shoe linings, gauze, etc.)


 
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